World Diabetes Day is a worldwide awareness focusing on Diabetes Mellitus and is held on 14 November each year. This event was launched in 1991 by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and World Health Organisation(WHO) as a response to the rapid rise of diabetes all around the world. Themes of various World Diabetes Day have focused upon various factors leading to the diabetic complications viz:
- 2013: Protect our Future: Diabetes Education and Prevention.
- 2014: Go Blue for Breakfast.
- 2015: Healthy Eating.
- 2016: Eyes on Diabetes.
- 2017: Women and diabetes – our right to a healthy future.
Diabetes, often referred by doctors as Diabetes Mellitus is a general term used for the conditions which lead to increase in glucose level in the blood.Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. It was first identified as a disease associated with ‘sweet urine’ and excessive muscle loss in ancient world.
COMMON TYPES OF DIABETES
TYPE 1 DIABETES : This type of Diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and adult, and is caused by pancreas producing little or no insulin for proper functioning. Approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive.
TYPE 2 DIABETES : A chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar (glucose). Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes.
GESTATIONAL DIABETES : This type of diabetes affect women during pregnancy. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES
Symptoms of any type of diabetes are related to high blood and urine glucose levels and include :
- frequent infections,
- vomiting, and
- blurred vision.
- weight loss or gain,
- dry mouth,
- slow-healing wounds, cuts, or sores,
- itching skin, and
- increased susceptibility to infections.
Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism, prediabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways – there are three possible tests:
- The A1C test
– at least 6.5% means diabetes
– between 5.7% and 5.99% means prediabetes
– less than 5.7% means normal
- The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test
– at least 126 mg/dl means diabetes
– between 100 mg/dl and 125.99 mg/dl means prediabetes
– less than 100 mg/dl means normal
- The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)
– at least 200 mg/dl means diabetes
– between 140 and 199.9 mg/dl means prediabetes
– less than 140 mg/dl means normal
COMPLICATIONS DUE TO DIABETES
Here are some complications that can be caused by badly controlled diabetes:
- Eye complications
- Foot complications
- Skin complications
- Heart Problems
- Poor Mental Health
- Gum disease
- Chronic Kidney Disease
- Neuropathy and many more.
CAUSES OF DIABETES
TYPE 1 : There is no specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved:
- Viral and Bacterial Infection
- Chemical toxins food
- Unidentified component causing autoimmune reaction
TYPE 2 : It is caused by several factors, including lifestyle factors and genes.
- Increasing age
- Bad Diet
- Living in sedentary lifestyle
GESTATIONAL DIABETES : It is caused by the hormonal changes of pregnancy along with genetic and lifestyle factors.
- Suffering from PCOs
- Have had a baby weighing over 9lb
- Overweight or Obese
Endocrinology is the specialty of medicine that deals with hormone disturbances. An Endocrinologist manage the patient with Diabetes. They test blood for the signs of diabetes. Usually doctors will test you on two different days to confirm the diagnosis. But if your blood glucose is very high or you have a lot of symptoms, one test may be all you need.
- A1C Criteria ; The A1C test is a blood test that provides your average levels of blood glucose over the past 3 months.
- Fasting Plasma Glucose test : This test measures your blood glucose level at a single point in time.
- Random Plasma Glucose test : It diagnose diabetes when diabetes symptoms are present and they do not want to wait until you have fasted.
- Oral Glucose Tolerance test : This checks your blood glucose before and 2 hours after you drink a sweet drink to see how your body handles the sugar.
The major goal in treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes is to control blood sugar (glucose) levels within the normal range, with minimal excursions to low or high levels.
The Type 1 Diabetes is treated with :
- Type 1 Diabetes Diet
The Type 2 diabetes is treated with :
- Weight Reduction
- Type 2 Diabetes Diet
- Oral medications
TESTING DIABETES AT HOME
Testing blood glucose (sugar) is an essential part of your diabetes care plan. A doctor might recommend testing at three different times, and often over the course of several days:
- Morning fasting Reading
- Before a meal
- After a meal
Usually, a blood glucose monitor, testing strips, and a lancet to draw the blood are all necessary for testing. Some testing kits offer all three, while others require purchasing each piece separately.
Some tips for buying a monitor include:
- selecting one with automatic coding
- checking insurance plans to see if the insurer only covers certain monitors
- looking at whether the unit stores previous data
- considering portability, since larger units can be harder to carry
- weighing blood sample size, particularly for people who do not like pricking themselves
There are several ways which we can opt for in order to prevent Diabetes:
- Cut sugar and refines carbs from your diet.
- Work out regularly.
- Drink plenty of water.
- Lose weight if overweight.
- Quit Smoking
- Avoid sedentary lifestyle.
- Eat high-fiber diet.
- Minimize intake of Processed food
- Drink Coffee or tea
You have control over the factors that lead to diabetes. So instead of waiting for diabetes to occur, prevent it and stay diabetes free. World Diabetes Day is the best initiative taken in order to reduce the Diabetic Patients. Let us pledge to live healthier lives so that we can overcome diabetes. Meet the best doctors in the city to stay away from diabetes at Radix Healthcare.