Cancer is the abnormal growth of cells. Cancer harms the body when altered cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissue called tumors. A primary tumor is the name for where a cancer starts. Cancer can sometimes spread to other parts of the body – this is called a secondary tumor or a metastasis. Cancer and its treatments can affect body systems, such as the blood circulation, lymphatic and immune systems, and the hormone system.
More dangerous, or malignant, tumors form when two things occur:
- a cancerous cell manages to move throughout the body using the blood or lymphatic systems, destroying healthy tissue in a process called invasion
- that cell manages to divide and grow, making new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called angiogenesis.
Cancer is ultimately the result of cells that uncontrollably grow and do not die. Normal cells in the body follow an orderly path of growth, division, and death. Programmed cell death is called apoptosis, and when this process breaks down, cancer begins to form. Unlike regular cells, cancer cells do not experience programmatic death and instead continue to grow and divide. This leads to a mass of abnormal cells that grows out of control.
It is said that there are around 200 types of cancers. The most common type of cancer that are diagnosed with greatest frequency are:
- ANAL CANCER
Anal Cancer occurs in the anus, located at the end of the gastrointestinal tract. Most anal cancers are squamous cell cancers. Squamous cells are a type of cell that line the surface of the anal canal. Rarer types of anal cancer include basal cell carcinoma, melanoma and adenocarcinoma of the anus, a cancer of the cells that make the mucus that helps the stools (faeces) move smoothly out of the anus.
1: Bleeding from the rectum
2: Lumps around the anus or in the groin
3: Pain or discomfort
4: Discharge of mucus from the anus
5: Difficulty controlling your bowel movements.
1: Human papilloma virus (HPV) and other diseases including chlamydia, genital warts and AIDS/HIV
2: Women who have already had cervical, vaginal cancer or a history of abnormal cells in the cervix, vulva or vagina.
3: Multiple sexual partners
4: Weakened immunity system
5: Receptive anal intercourse
3: Abdominoperineal Resection
- BLADDER CANCER
Bladder Cancer occurs when uncontrolled cells develop in the bladder, the organ that collects urine from the kidneys before eliminating it from the body through urination. There are different types of bladder cancer:
1: Urothelial carcinoma, formally known as transitional cell carcinoma, is the most common form of bladder cancer (80-90%) and starts in the urothelial cells in the bladder wall’s innermost layer
2: Squamous cell carcinoma begins in the thin, flat cells that line the bladder
3: Adenocarcinoma is a rare form which starts in mucus-producing cells in the bladder.
1: Problem emptying the bladder.
2: A burning feeling when passing urine
3: Blood in urine
4: Lower abdominal or back pain.
5: Need to pass urine often
1: Workplace exposure to certain chemicals used in dyeing in the textile, petrochemical and rubber industries.
3: Use of the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide
4: Chronic inflammation of the bladder.
5: Palliative Care
- BONE CANCER
Bone cancer refers to malignant tumor of the bone that destroys other healthy bone tissue. Bone cancer can refer to primary bone cancer or secondary bone cancer and the two types are quite different. Primary bone cancer is cancer that begins in the bones. Secondary (metastatic) bone cancer refers to a cancer that started elsewhere in the body and has spread to the bones. There are more than 30 different types of primary bone cancer.
1: Swelling over the affected part of the bone
2: Stiffness or tenderness in the bone
3: Problems with movement
4: Loss of feeling in the affected limb
1: Previous radiotherapy, particularly for people who received high doses at a young age
2: Other bone conditions, such as Paget’s disease of the bone
3: Genetic factors, such as inherited conditions like Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and a strong family history of certain cancers.
1: Radiation therapy
2: Limb sparing surgery
- BRAIN CANCER
Brain Tumor happens when abnormal cells form within or close the brain. Any growth inside the enclosed space of brain can cause many problems.There are more than 40 major types of brain tumours, which are grouped into two main types:
1: benign – slow-growing and unlikely to spread. Common types are meningiomas, neuromas, pituitary tumours and craniopharyngiomas.
2: malignant – cancerous and able to spread into other parts of the brain or spinal cord. Common types include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, glioblastomas and mixed gliomas.
2: Difficulty speaking or remembering words
3: Weakness or paralysis in part of the body
4: Seizures: severe or mild
1: Some brain and spinal cord tumors are more common in people with certain inherited or genetic conditions
2: People exposed to very high doses of radiation to the head.
- BREAST CANCER
Breast Cancer is the most common cancer in women. It is the abnormal growth of the cells lining the breast lobules or ducts. These cells grow uncontrollably and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body. It is the most common invasive cancer in women, and the second main cause of cancer death in women, after lung cancer.
1: New lumps or thickening in the breast or under the arm
2: Nipple discharge or turning in
3: Skin of the breast dimpling
4: Rash or red swollen breasts.
1: Inheritance of mutations in the genes BRCA2, BRCA1 and CHEK2
2: Exposure to female hormones
3: A previous breast cancer diagnosis
4: A past history of certain on-cancerous breast conditions
1: Adjuvant treatment
2: Biological therapy
3: Hormone therapy
4: Radiation therapy
- CERVICAL CANCER
Cervical Cancer is a cancer that starts in the Cervix, the narrow opening into the uterus from the Vagina. It occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix grow uncontrollable.Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer for women worldwide, but because it develops over time, it is also one of the most preventable types of cancer. Cancer of the cervix tends to occur during midlife.
1: Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause
2: Pelvic pain or pain during intercourse
3: Longer or heavier menstrual periods than usual
4: Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor
1: Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
3: Exposion to diethylstilbestrol in utero
1: Radiation therapy
4: Targeted therapy
- HEAD AND NECK CANCER
Head and neck cancers occur inside the sinuses, nose, mouth and salivary glands down through the throat. Although these cancers are different, they are treated similarly, so are considered as a group.
1: Hoarse voice
2: Difficulty swallowing
3: Bad breath
1: Consumption of alcohol and tobacco
2: Poor oral hygiene
3: Poor nutrition
4: Increasing age
1: Neck dissection
2: Reconstructive surgery
3: External beam therapy
- KIDNEY CANCER
Kidney, or renal, cancer refers to any type of cancer involving the the kidney.The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma, accounting for about 90% of all cases. Usually only one kidney is affected, but in rare cases the cancer may develop in both kidneys.
1: Pain or a dull ache in the side or lower back that is not due to an injury
2: A lump in the abdomen
3: Rapid, unexplained weight loss
4: Blood in urine
3: Overuse of pain relievers containing phenacetin
4: Workplace exposure to asbestos or cadmium
1: Radiofrequency ablation
3: Targeted Therapy
- LIVER CANCER
Liver cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the liver. Some cancers develop outside the liver and spread to the area. However, only cancers that start in the liver are described as liver cancer. There are different types of Liver Cancer namely :
1: Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) or Hepatoma
2: Cholangiocarcinoma, or Bile Duct cancer
3: Angiosarcoma, which starts in the blood vessels.
1: Pain in the upper right side of the abdomen
2: Severe pain and/or swelling of the abdomen
3: Appetite loss and feeling sick
4: Yellowing skin and eyes
1: Fatty liver disease or genetic disorders including haemochromatosis, or alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
2: Liver scarring
3: Exposure to certain chemicals.
4: Smoking tobacco
1: Selective internal radiation therapy
2: Partial Hepactectomy
3: Endoscopic Stent Placement
4: Liver transplant
- LUNG CANCER
Cancer of the lung, like all cancers, results from an abnormality in the body’s basic unit of life, the cell. There are two main types of lung cancer:
1: Non-small cell lung cancer
2: Small cell lung cancer
1: Shortness of breath and wheezing
2: Coughing or spitting up blood
3: Recurring bronchitis or pneumonia
1: Second-hand smoke
2: Exposure to asbestos
3: Exposure to occupational substances such as uranium, chromium, nickel, diesel fumes and soot
4: History of come lung diseases such as lung fibrosis or emphysema.
1: Thermal Ablation
4: Targeted Therapy
- MOUTH CANCER
Mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer or cancer of the oral cavity, is often used to describe a number of cancers that start in the region of the mouth. These most commonly occur on the lips, tongue and floor of the mouth but can also start in the cheeks, gums, roof of the mouth, tonsils and salivary glands.
1: A lump in your neck
2: Swelling or a sore on your lip that won’t heel
3: Bleeding or numbness in the mouth
4: White or red patches on the mouth, tongue or gums
1: Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
2: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
3: Poor oral hygiene and gum disease
4: Chewing the seed of the areca palm tree
4: Palliative Care
- SKIN CANCER
Skin cancer occurs when skin cells are damaged, for example, by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. There are three main types of skin cancer:
1: Basal cell carcinoma
2: Squamous cell carcinoma
1: Any crusty, non-healing sores
2: Small lumps that are red, pale or pearly in color
3: New spots, freckles or any moles changing in color, thickness or shape over a period of weeks to months
- STOMACH CANCER
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is a buildup of abnormal cells that form a mass in part of the stomach. It is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths.
1: A painful or burning sensation in the abdomen
2: Heartburn or indigestion
3: A sense of fullness, even after a small meal
4: Loss of appetite and/or weight loss
1: Infection with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori
2: A diet high in smoked, pickled and salted foods and low in fresh fruit and vegetables
3: Being overweight or obese
4: Partial Gastrectomy for ulcer disease
1: Neoadjuvant Radiation
2: Adjuvant Radiation
- THYROID CANCER
Thyroid cancer affects the thyroid gland, which is in the front of the neck. Thyroid cancer is not common, but diagnoses are increasing. The thyroid gland produces hormones which regulate body metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight. Less common thyroid cancers include medullary thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer and thyroid sarcoma or lymphoma.
1: A lump in the neck or throat that may get bigger over time
2: Difficulty breathing or swallowing
3: Swollen lymph glands in the neck
4: Hoarse voice
1: A family history of the faulty gene called RET gene
2: Having a thyroid condition such as an enlarged thyroid (goitre) or thyroid nodules
3: Exposure to some forms of radiation, such as childhood radiotherapy treatment.
1: Thyroid Surgery
2: T4 therapy
3: Radioactive iodine treatment
After knowing the major types of cancer, you can make sure to get yourself or your family member suffering from cancer free from cancer. It is our duty to get society cancer rid by awaring them about the cancer. To know more about cancer and its types you can contact Radix Healthcare.